Basic Knowledge of CNC Lathe

Aug. 20, 2020

With the rapid development of scientific skills and social consumption, mechanical products are becoming more and more complex, and the requirements for the morality and consumption rate of mechanical products are getting higher and higher. In the aerospace, military, and computer industries, parts have high precision, complex shapes, small batches, frequent corrections, difficult processing, low consumption efficiency, high rest intensity, and quality difficulties. The process of mechanical processing is the most important means of adapting to the above development characteristics intelligently. In order to deal with the above-mentioned problems, a kind of smart, versatile, high-precision, and efficient "flexible" automated consumer equipment, a numerical control machine tool, emerged under this situation. At present, CNC technology has gradually spread. CNC Lathe machine has been widely used in industrial consumption and has become an important development direction of machine tool automation.

CNC Lathe Machine

CNC Lathe Machine

1. CNC

(1) The meaning of CNC:

Numerical control means NUMERICALCONTROL, which is short for numerical control.

The essence of numerical control is to actively master mechanical installation actions through digital information under a specific processing method (digital quantities that are not changed in the Mainland). It has the same nature as sequential control (that is, sequential control) by imitating continuous changes. . Because the information is mastered in numerical control, and the processing of these short messages is inseparable from the computer, the technique of actively mastering through the computer is referred to as numerical control. The numerical control mentioned here refers specifically to numerical control used in machine tool processing (ie, machine tool numerical control). In addition, numerical control is also widely used in measurement, physical and chemical experiments and analysis, material and information transmission, construction, and scientific management.

(2) Classification of CNC:

The NC installation of late CNC machine tools consists of various logic elements and memory elements to form random logic circuits. It is a hardware structure with fixed wiring. The hardware realizes the CNC function, which is called hardware CNC. The CNC machine tools implemented with this technique are individually called NC machine tools.

COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROL, referred to as CNC. The modern numerical control system is a numerical control system using a microprocessor or a special microcomputer. The system sequence (software) stored in the memory in advance realizes the mastering logic, realizes partial or partial numerical control functions, and connects with peripheral equipment through interfaces. For the CNC system, such machine tools are individually called CNC machine tools.

2. CNC machine tools and CNC machine tools

(1) CNC machine tool

Machine tool numerical control refers to the task of compiling tasks through the processing sequence, recording their mastering instructions on the information medium in the form of digital signals, and after processing by the output computer, the order, displacement and speed of various actions of the machine tool can be actively mastered. skill. The target is specifically for machine tools and machine tools. The machine tools mentioned here do not only refer to metal cutting machine tools (machine tools such as trolley, milling, planing, drilling, grinding, boring, etc.).

(2) CNC machine tools

The CNC machine tool is a new type of mechanical and electrical integration processing equipment that uses digital information to master the machine tool according to a given static law and perform active processing.

Numerical control machine tools are the product of the combination of digital mastering skills and machine tools. Machine tool numerical control skills are realized through machine tool processing techniques such as CNC gantry milling machines. The crux of using CNC techniques is to learn and use CNC machine tools well.

3. Application of CNC machine tools

Features of CNC machine tools:

Compared with traditional machine tools, controlled machine tools have the following characteristics.

(1) Highly flexible

Processing parts on a CNC machine tool depends on the processing sequence. It is different from an ordinary machine tool. It does not need to be made, many molds and fixtures are changed, and there is no need to frequently adjust the machine tool. Therefore, CNC machine tools are used in places where the processed parts are frequently changed, which is suitable for the consumption of single-piece, small-batch products and the development of new products, thereby prolonging the production preparation cycle and saving a small amount of process equipment costs.

(2) High processing accuracy

The machining accuracy of CNC machine tools can individually reach 0.05-0.1MM. CNC machine tools are controlled according to the digital signal situation. Each time a pulse signal is output from the CNC installation, the moving parts of the machine tool move a pulse equivalent (individually 0.001MM), and the machine tool advances The uniform error of the backlash of the transmission chain and the screw pitch can be compensated by the CNC installation, so the positioning accuracy of the CNC machine tool is relatively high.

(3) The processing quality is stable and reliable

To process the same batch of parts, on the same machine tool, under the same processing conditions, using the same tools and processing sequence, the cutting paths of the tools are complete and the same, the parts have good consistency, and the quality is stable.

(4) High consumption rate

The CNC machine tool can effectively increase the processing time and auxiliary time of the parts. The large scale of the spindle sound speed and feed rate of the CNC machine tool allows the machine tool to perform powerful cutting with a large amount of cutting. CNC machine tools are currently entering a period of high-speed machining. The rapid movement and positioning of moving parts of CNC machine tools and high-speed cutting have greatly improved the consumption rate. In addition, it can be used in conjunction with the tool magazine of the machining center to realize the continuous processing of multiple processes on one machine tool, which increases the turnaround time of semi-finished products and improves the consumption rate.

(5) Improve resting conditions

Before CNC machine tool processing is adjusted, output sequence and start, the machine tool can actively continue processing until the processing is completed. What the operator has to do is to perform tasks such as sequence output, compilation, part loading and unloading, tool preparation, machining status observation, and part testing. The rest intensity is greatly reduced, and the rest of the machine tool operator tends to be an intellectual task. In addition, the machine tools are individually united, which is clean and safe.

(6) Use consumption governance modernization

The processing of CNC machine tools can accurately predict the processing time afterwards, and the tools and fixtures used can be standardized and modernized. It is easy to realize the standardization of processing information. At present, it has been organically combined with computer-assisted design and production (CAD/CAM) It is the basic of modern integrated production skills.

4. Development of CNC skills

1) High speed

The numerical control system adopts a microprocessor with more than 32 bits, so that the output, decoding, summation, output and other links of the numerical control system are realized at high speed, and can improve the division rate of the numerical control system and realize the high speed and high speed of the continuous small sequence. finishing.

A new type of numerical control system using a 64-bit central processing unit (CPU) is currently being developed, which has enhanced interpolation calculation functions, rapid feed functions, realized high-speed machining, and realized multi-axis control functions. The number of individual control axes is 3— 15 axes, up to 24 axes, the number of axes can be mastered up to 3-6 axes.

2) Multi-function

The CNC system has a variety of monitoring, testing and compensation functions. Such as tool wear detection, system accuracy and thermal change detection, etc., it also has functions such as tool life management, tool length offset, tool radius compensation, tool tip compensation, and thread pitch compensation. Most modern CNC machine tools adopt CRT display, which can display the trajectory of two-dimensional graphics, and some can also display three-dimensional black static graphics. With the help of CRT, the keyboard can realize the functions of sequence output, editing, correction and deletion. Modern CNC system has hardware, software and fault self-diagnosis functions.

(3) Intelligent

In modern CNC systems, adaptive mastering techniques have been introduced. The self-adaptive mastering technique is a technique that can adjust the characteristics of the task condition measured in the machining process, and make the cutting process reach and maintain the best condition.

The development of modern CNC system intelligence is currently important in the following aspects:

① Active detection and centering of workpieces.

②Detection of tool damage and active replacement of spare tools.

Tool life and tool storage status management.

④ Load monitoring, data management, training management.

⑤ Use feedforward to master the function of real-time compensation vector.

⑥According to the thermal deformation during processing, the function of real-time compensation for the expansion and contraction of ball rods.

5. Composition of CNC machine tools

Modern computer numerical control machine tools are composed of sequence, output equipment, computer numerical control installation, servo system, and machine tool body.

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